Certified Registered Nurse Practitioners ("CRNP") can prescribe medication, examine patients, diagnose illnesses, and provide treatment, much like physicians do. In fact, nurse practitioners have what’s referred to as “full practice authority” in 20 states, meaning that they do not have to work under the supervision of a doctor. In the Pennsylvania, however, while CRNPs still have more authority than RNs, they must have a medical doctor sign on certain patient care decisions.
Nurse practitioners are increasingly becoming integral to medical teams as more and more hospitals and healthcare facilities are utilizing their expertise. Their experience as working nurses gives them a unique approach to patient care, while their advanced studies qualify them to take on additional duties that are usually left to physicians.
There are many different ways CRNP are exposed to practicing outside the scope of their practice. Dispensing medications incorrectly or without a prescription is the first and foremost. CRNPs are especially vulnerable to disciplinary action as they hold prescriptive authority to dispense Schedule II and other non-scheduled medications. This blog will address CRNP's legal duties.
CRNP's must collaborate with a physician who holds a current license to practice in the Commonwealth. When acting in collaboration with a physician in a "collaborative agreement" within the CRNP‘s specialty, the CRNP may perform comprehensive assessments of patients and establish medical diagnosis, perform and supervise diagnostic tests, institute referrals, develop treatment plans, establish prescriptive authority approvals for pharmaceutical treatments, complete admission and discharge summary's, and order various supplemental therapeutic medical care. Supplemental medical care includes dietary plans, home health care and hospice, durable medical equipment, physical therapy and dietitian referrals, respiratory and occupational therapy referrals, and perform initial assessments of methadone treatment evaluations.
Methadone treatment and evaluations can be accomplished in conjunction with approval of a physician in the Pennsylvania methadone treatment regulations. In this time of opioid crisis, CRNP's prescribing methadone is a huge issue. CRNPs have sought clarification of their authority and qualifications to prescribe Suboxone. 63 PS § 21.283(c) of the Pennsylvania Code sets forth CRNP’s prescriptive authority.
Every two years CRNP must complete 16 hours of board approved CE credits in pharmacology. Initially, CRNPs require 45 hours of coursework specific to advanced pharmacology through the a professional nurse education program within five years before initial prescriptive authority approval. Board prescribing and dispensing schedule II restrictions include only 30-day supply authorizations and only in conjunction with a collaborative agreement setting forth such authorization by the physician in the agreement.
CRNP are limited to prescribing 90-day supplies of schedule III and IV controlled substances, which physician based authority is identified in the collaborative agreement. CRNP may not delegate prescriptive authority to other RNs working in the practice. CRNPs may not issue pre-signed prescriptions, must receive a national provider identifier number, and all prescriptions must include the CRNP's name, title, and Pennsylvania CRNP certification number. All labeling, packaging, dispensing, administering, and prescribing must be done in compliance with all other federal and state regulations and Pennsylvania Department of Health chapter 28 code of regulations.
CRNPs must register with the DEA and follow DEA minimum standards when prescribing, administering or dispensing controlled substances. DEA federal regulations require the CRNP to properly conduct and documents their initial evaluation, physical examination, receipt and review the patient's medical and medication history. The physical evaluation includes examining the heart, lungs, vital signs, pain level, and body functions that relate to the patient specific complaint. Re-evaluation‘s and follow up should follow accordingly.
Patient counseling and medical records review are warranted to properly document symptoms observed and reported, diagnosis of any condition for which the controlled substance is being given, and the directions for administration. If the CRNP continues to prescribe the controlled substance, medical records must reflect changes to symptoms observed and reported and modification, alteration, or a limitation of any diagnosis of the condition for which the controlled substance is being given and the directions given to the patient.
The CRNP may dispense emergency, short-term prescriptions in conjunction with examination, evaluation, and proper diagnosis if such is then documented in the patient’s medical record. Any emergency prescription must be delivered to the pharmacist within three days, and the emergency prescription may not be refilled or issued consecutive to an emergency prescription unless there is a follow-up physical examination.
Compliance with the terms and conditions of CRNP prescriptive authority is not necessarily compliance with Nursing Board scope of practice or standards that are acceptable and the prevailing practice. Compliance with the above PA Code minimum standards does not restrict Nursing Board disciplinary action CRNPs based upon violations of the Drug Act or any other nursing licensing regulation.
Federal and State Drug Act issues address improper prescription dispensing, improper charting, failing to chart, or performing medical malpractice in the course of acting outside the scope as a CRNP. Mere compliance with PA Code rudimentary medical practice and charting responsibilities and basic medical care giving duties does not shield the CRNPs from scope of practice and other claims.
CRNP scope of practice is governed by the collaborative agreement by and between the supervising physician and CRNP along with any large scale institutional employment job position limitations. Improperly administering medications earlier than the time set forth in a prescription and refilling daily, weekly, or 30 day prescriptions will well necessary trigger employment or board based disciplinary issues.
This is why the prescriptive authority established in the collaborative agreement between a physician and a CRNP must satisfy very specific requirements. The collaborative agreements must be in writing, identifying the category of drugs this specific CRNP is allowed to prescribe as per their certified practice. The collaborating physician obviously must sign the agreement and a copy must be submitted to the Bureau Professional and Occupational Affairs.
The agreement must be updated every two years, or whenever the agreement is changed, and must identify the professional liability insurance limits the physician's policy provides. Anytime the prescriptive authority in the collaborative agreement is updated or terminated, the CRNP (and no one else) shall notify the Board in writing of such changes. The CRNP is allowed to advertise or publicly display sign identifying their participation in a medical practice. A licensed CRNP may include such nomenclature after their name on any letterhead, business cards, and practice advertising.
CRNP must undertake and only engage in their specific practice area and only perform procedures in which they have necessary knowledge, preparation, experience and competency to properly execute. CRNP practice is limited in scope to only their specialty and consistent with their CRNP collaborative agreement. This is the scope of practice provision that allows for the allegation CRNP prescribing medication drugs or other items outside the scope of their practice.
Certification as a CRNP may be suspended, revoked, or otherwise subjected to remedial measures when, after notice of and an opportunity for a hearing, the board finds that a CRNP has engaged and performed medical functions and tasks beyond the scope of practice permitted for a CRNP, that CRNP specially, or in violation of the collaborative agreement. This is the general, catchall provision, for a potential penalty, based upon the allegation that a CRNP performed a medical function for which the CRNP does not have the necessary knowledge, preparation, experience and competency to perform properly or is not qualified under the CRNP Act.Call me to discuss your case.